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SPOOFING IN CYBERSPACE

Deceiving Victims Via Hoaxing/Tricking To Lure Into Trap

WHAT IS SPOOFING ?

  • Spoofing means unauthorized access to computers, whereby the intruder sends messages to a computer with an IP address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host.
  • Spoofing attack is a situation in which a person or program successfully identifies as another by falsifying data, to gain an illegitimate advantage.
  • Spoofing is a type of scam in which criminals attempt to obtain someone's personal information by pretending to be a legitimate business, a neighbor, or some other innocent party.
  • Hiding other identity of another user on internet
  • Spoofing refers deceiving computer systems or other computer user
  • USAGES OF SPOOFING:

    Spoofing is often the way a bad actor gains access in order to execute a larger cyber attack such as man-in-the-middle attack.
    Considered one of the most common online attacks, IP spoofing occurs when hackers impersonate an IP address for the purpose of hiding their identity and masquerading as another sender. Spoofers will send packets to systems that believe the IP source is legitimate.
    Spoofing is the act of disguising a communication from an unknown source as being from a known trusted source.
    Spoofing can apply to emails, phone calls, and websites, or can be more technical, such as a computer spoofing an IP address, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), or Domain Name System (DNS) server.
    Successful attacks on organizations can lead to infected computer systems and networks, data breaches, and loss of revenue all liable to affect the organization’s public reputation.
    Successful attacks on organizations can lead to infected computer systems and networks, data breaches, and loss of revenue all liable to affect the organization’s public reputation.

    HOW DOES SPOOFING WORKS:-

    Spoofing can be applied to a number of communication methods and employ various levels.
    Spoofing can be used carry out phishing attacks, which are scams to gain sensitive information from individuals or organizations. The following example of spoofing attack method gives more detail on how different attacks work.

    Working of Spoofing Attacks

    Successful spoofing requires a combination of the spoof itself and social engineering. Social engineering refers to the methods cybercriminals use to trick us into giving up personal information, clicking a malicious link, or opening a malware-laden attachment.

    Cybercriminals are counting on the vulnerabilities we all carry as human beings such as fear, naivete, greed, and vanity, to convince us to do something we really shouldn't be doing.
    Human vulnerabilities aren't always bad either. Curiosity and empathy are generally good qualities to have, but criminals love to target people who exhibit them.

    Successful spoofing requires a combination of the spoof itself and social engineering. Social engineering refers to the methods cybercriminals use to trick us into giving up personal information, clicking a malicious link, or opening a malware-laden attachment.

    WHY HACKERS USE SPOOFING :-

    Spoofing can be used to gain access to a:-

  • Target’s personal information
  • Spread malware through infected links or attachments
  • Bypass network access controls
  • Redistribute traffic to conduct a denial-of-service attack.

  • TYPES OF SPOOFING ATTACKS:

    There are so many types of Spoofing attacks that are currently active in cyberspace, among which major spoofing types are as follow :

    Caller ID spoofing

    CALLER ID SPOOFING ATTACK:-

    With caller ID spoofing, attackers can make it appear as if their phone calls are coming from a specific number either one that is known and/or trusted to the recipient, or one that indicates a specific geographic location.

    Attackers can then use social engineering often posing as someone from a bank or customer support—to convince their targets to, over the phone, provide sensitive information such as passwords, account information, social security numbers, and more.

    ARP spoofing

    ARP SPOOFING ATTACK:-

    The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to translate IP addresses into Media Access Control (MAC) addresses in order to be properly transmitted. In short, the protocol maps an IP address to a physical machine address.
    ARP spoofing is used to link an attacker’s MAC to a legitimate network IP address so the attacker can receive data meant for the owner associated withthat IP address.
    ARP spoofing is commonly used to steal or modify data but can also be used in denial-of-service and man-in-the-middle attacks or in session hijacking.

    DNS SPOOFING ATTACK

    DNS SPOOFING ATTACK:-

    The Domain Name System (DNS) is responsible for associating domain names to the correct IP addresses. When a user types in a domain name, the DNS system corresponds that name to an IP address, allowing the visitor to connect to the correct server.
    DNS spoofing attack to be successful, a malicious attacker reroutes the DNS translation so that it points to a different server which is typically infected with malware and can be used to help spread viruses and worms
    The DNS server spoofing attack is also sometimes referred to as DNS cache poisoning, due to the lasting effect when a server caches the malicious DNS responses and serving them up each time the same request is sent to that server.

    IP SPOOFING ATTACK

    IP SPOOFING ATTACK:-

    The most commonly-used spoofing attack is the IP spoofing attack. This type of spoofing attack is successful when a malicious attacker copies a legitimate IP address in order to send out IP packets using a trusted IP address.
    Attackers may use IP (Internet Protocol) spoofing to disguise a computer IPaddress, thereby hiding the identity of the sender or impersonating another computer system. One purpose of IP address spoofing is to gain access to a networks that authenticate users based on IP addresses.The most popular type of IP spoofing attack is a Denial of Service attack, or DoS.
    One outcome attackers can achieve using IP spoofing attacks is the ability to perform DoS attacks, using multiple compromised computers to send out spoofed IP packets of data to a specific server.If too many data packets reach the server, the server will be unable to handle all of the requests, causing theserver to overload.

     WEBSITE SPOOFING

    WEBSITE SPOOFING ATTACK:-

    Website spoofing refers to when a website is designed to mimic an existing site known and trusted by the user. Attackers use these sites to gain login and other personal information from users.
    EMAIL SPOOFING

    EMAIL SPOOFING ATTACK :-

    Email spoofing occurs when an attacker uses an email message to trick a recipient into thinking it came from a known or trusted source.
    *Sender information is easy to spoof and can be done in one of two ways:
  • Mimicking a trusted email address or domain by using alternate letters or numbers to appear only slightly different than the original
  • Disguising the From field to be the exact email address of a known or trusted source
  • HOW TO PROTECT AGAINST SPOOFING ATTACKS:-

    The primary way to protect against spoofing is to be vigilant for the signs of a spoof, whether by email, web, or phone.

    Always look up for following mistakes:

  • Poor spelling
  • Incorrect/inconsistent grammar
  • Unusual sentence structure or turns of phrase
  • These errors are often indicators that the communications are not from who they claim to be.
  • The sender's email address:
    Sometimes addresses will be spoofed by changing one or two letters in either the local-part (before the @ symbol) or domain name itself. Say for example, l letter can be replace by 1 (one) or o can be replaced by 0 (zero).
  • The URL of a webpage:
    Similar to email addresses, the spelling of Authenticate website & URL can be slightly changed to trick a visitor not looking closely.
  • Never make following mistakes:

  • Don’t click on unfamiliar links or download unfamiliar or unexpected attachments.
  • If you receive this in your email, send a reply to ask for confirmation. If an email address is spoofed exactly, the reply will go to the actual person with the email address not the person spoofing it.
  • Don’t take phone calls at face value be wary of the information the caller is requesting.
  • Google the phone number presented on the caller ID to see if it’s associated with scams. Even if the number looks legitimate, hang up and call the number yourself, as caller ID numbers can be spoofed.

    "Being aware of different spoofing methods and their signs can help you avoid being a victim."

    Resources & References:

    SPRINGBOARD , MALWAREBYTES , CHECKMARX

    About Author :


    Mittal Kapdiya
    mittal.cyber4all.in
    Mittal Kapadiya has well skill and experiences in Android & Web Application development. she has excellent catch on Python and various OS (Linux, Ubuntu & Windows ). She's so keen in Ethical Hacking and System Security Aspects and have good knowledge in it. Currently she's pursuing Masters in CYBER Security and is an active blogger at CYBER4ALL.

    Warning :
    The articles and tutorials published on this site are performed under safe environments with all safety measures and supervision of Cyber Experts & Professionals. And it is only intend for educational purposes & to be aware about such activities. These contents should not be used for any illegal purposes.
    Always Remember,
    "Performing such things without taking concerns of respective owners of System & Resources is tottaly illegal and punishable under various IT Acts and Laws."
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