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WHAT IS ARP ?

The "Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)" is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given internet layer address, typically an IPv4 address.

The Address Resolution Protocol is a request-response protocol whose messages are encapsulated by a link layer protocol. It is communicated within the boundaries of a single network, never routed across internetworking nodes. This property places ARP into the link layer of the Internet protocol suite.

WHAT IS ARP SPOOFING ?

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given internet layer address, typically an IPv4 address.
The Address Resolution Protocol is a request-response protocol whose messages are encapsulated by a link layer protocol. It is communicated within the boundaries of a single network, never routed across internetworking nodes. This property places ARP into the link layer of the Internet protocol suite.
Working of ARP Spoofing Attacks ARP spoofing is a type of attack in which a malicious actor sends falsified ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) messages over a local area network.This results in the linking of an attacker's MAC address with the IP address of a legitimate computer or server on the network.
Once the attacker’s MAC address is connected to an authentic IP address, the attacker will begin receiving any data that is intended for that IP address.
ARP spoofing can enable malicious parties to intercept, modify or even stop data in-transit. ARP spoofing attacks can only occur on local area networks that utilize the Address Resolution Protocol.

LEADING CAUSE OF ARP SPOOFING ATTACK:-

  • Denial-of-service Attacks:
    DoS attacks often leverage ARP spoofing to link multiple IP addresses with a single target’s MAC address. As a result, traffic that is intended for many different IP addresses will be redirected to the target’s MAC address, overloading the target with traffic.
  • Session Hijacking:
    Session hijacking attacks can use ARP spoofing to steal session IDs, granting attackers access to private systems and data.
  • Man-in-the-middle attacks
    MITM attacks can rely on ARP spoofing to intercept and modify traffic between victims.
  • HOW DOES ARP SPOOFING ATTACK WORKS :-

    The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a widely used communications protocol for resolving Internet layer addresses into link layer addresses.
    When an Internet Protocol (IP) datagram is sent from one host to another in a local area network, the destination IP address must be resolved to a MAC address for transmission via the data link layer.
    When another host's IP address is known, and its MAC address is needed, a broadcast packet is sent out on the local network. This packet is known as an ARP request. The destination machine with the IP in the ARP request then responds with an ARP reply that contains the MAC address for that IP.

    ARP spoofing

    ARP spoofing attacks typically follow a progression approach. The steps to an ARP spoofing attack usually include:

  • The attacker opens an ARP spoofing tool and sets the tool’s IP address to match the IP subnet of a target.

    Examples of popular ARP spoofing softwareinclude Arpspoof, Cain & Abel, Arpoison and Ettercap.
  • The attacker uses the ARP spoofing tool to scan for the IP and MAC addresses of hosts in the target’s subnet.
  • The attacker chooses its target and begins sending ARP packets across the LAN that contain the attacker’s MAC address and the target’s IP address.
  • As other hosts on the LAN cache the spoofed ARP packets, data that those hosts send to the victim will go to the attacker instead. From here, the attacker can steal data or launch a more sophisticated follow-up attack.

  • *Tutorial for performing ARP Spoofing Using Ettercap..

    ARP SPOOFING DETECTION, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION :-

  • Packet Filtering:
    Packet filters inspect packets as they are transmitted across a network. Packet filters are useful in ARP spoofing prevention because they are capable of filtering out and blocking packets with conflicting source address information (packets from outside the network that show source addresses from inside the network and vice-versa).
  • Avoid Trust Relationships:
    Organizations should develop protocols that rely on trust relationships as little as possible. Trust relationships rely only on IP addresses for authentication, making it significantly easier for attackers to run ARP spoofing attacks when they are in place.
  • Use ARP Spoofing Detection Software
    There are many programs available that help organizations detect ARP spoofing attacks. These programs work by inspecting and certifying data before it is transmitted and blocking data that appears to be spoofed.
  • Use Cryptographic Network Protocols:
    Transport Layer Security (TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), HTTP Secure (HTTPS) and other secure communications protocols bolster ARP spoofing attack prevention by encrypting data prior to transmission and authenticating data when it is received.
  • Resources & References:

    SPRINGBOARD , MALWAREBYTES , CHECKMARX

    About Author :


    Mittal Kapdiya
    mittal.cyber4all.in
    Mittal Kapadiya has well skill and experiences in Android & Web Application development. she has excellent catch on Python and various OS (Linux, Ubuntu & Windows ). She's so keen in Ethical Hacking and System Security Aspects and have good knowledge in it. Currently she's pursuing Masters in CYBER Security and is an active blogger at CYBER4ALL.

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